Memorial Day has passed and summer unofficially arrived. With that, it's officially time to identify 25 national contenders for the 2010 football season.
Before we reveal the elite, here are numerous power-packed squads you won't be reading about. They teeter right on the outside looking in.
The most noticeable absentee is Don Bosco Prep (Ramsey, N.J.), which finished No. 1 in the Xcellent 25 in 2009.
Does that mean it's a down year for the Ironmen and for the Garden State as a whole? No. Quite the opposite, in fact.
The Ironmen were hit extremely hard by graduation losses after seeing one of the top senior classes in state history depart for college. They retool around quarterback Gary Nova, and have plenty of talent in the freshman, sophomore, and junior ranks to re-establish themselves in 2010.
One of the team's biggest losses was Nunzio Campanile, the team's offensive coordinator who took over the head coaching job at rival Bergen Catholic (Oradell, N.J.). Campanile inherits plenty of talent there and could make this year's Bosco-Bergen game extremely interesting.
St. Peter's Prep (Jersey City, N.J.), which returns superstar running back Savon Huggins along with fellow blue-chip recruits Sheldon Royster and Keith Lumpkin, will also contend in a field of New Jersey teams that is one of the deepest in recent years. Following Don Bosco Prep's success last year, the national spotlight could be on all three.
Also missing from the rankings is last year's preseason No. 1 St. Thomas Aquinas (Fort Lauderdale, Fla.). The Raiders had a disappointing end to their 2009 campaign, and are the victim of both heavy losses to graduation and a deep year for Florida teams.
Interestingly, none of the teams representing Florida in the rankings is from the Dade-Broward area. In addition to Aquinas, Northwestern (Miami, Fla.), Central (Miami, Fla.), Miramar (Fla.), and Boyd Anderson (Lauderdale Lakes, Fla.) (among others) could all be very good, but none appear to stand out from the pack just yet.
Camden County (Kingsland, Ga.), Maine South (Park Ridge, Ill.), and Memphis University (Tenn.) each have won back-to-back state championships and finished ranked in last year's Xcellent 25. All three schools will likely retool, and could very well find themselves ranked during the regular season. However, none made the cut in this initial crack at the country's top teams.
Mullen (Denver, Colo.), Union (Tulsa, Okla.), Hutchinson (Kan.), and Highlands (Fort Thomas, Ky.) find themselves in the exact same boat. Similarly, the De La Salle (Concord, Calif.) Spartans missed the cut. The Spartans have won a CIF Bowl Game in two of the last three years, but are not the team to beat in Northern California.
Here's MaxPreps' take on teams in the hunt for a mythical national crown just 10 weeks until kickoff.
25. Shiloh Christian (Springdale, Ark.), 13-1, 4A state champs
The book "From Good to Great" by Jim Collins describes businesses that have taken the leap from a packed crowd of above-average organizations into the much more elite category of greatness.
On the national high school football scene, Shiloh Christian appears to have made that same jump.
The Saints avenged a 47-9 blowout home loss in 2008 to Louisiana power Evangel Christian Academy (Shreveport, La.) by traveling to Shreveport and pulling off a 37-36 upset to start their 2009 campaign.
That Evangel Christian team went on to beat Curtis (River Ridge, La.) to capture a 2A state title. That Shiloh Christian team went on to an Arkansas 4A crown and a much more prominent national reputation.
Kiehl Frazier, the Saints signal caller, is one of the best dual-threat quarterbacks in the nation, and has played a huge role in carrying Shiloh Christian the last three seasons. He tore through opposing defenses for 2,614 yards and 34 TDs last year, including four against against an Evangel Christian defense that allowed only 11 points per game.
Frazier's big-threat target, Zann Jones, is also back. He hauled in 49 passes for 797 yards. Garrett Harper and Jason Schisler will see most of the carries, thought Frazier is probably the team's biggest home-run threat rushing the ball.
The Saints will be strong on defense, literally. Defensive tackle Samuel Harvill, an absolute force in the middle, has committed to Kansas State and continues to improve. Led by Travis Bodenstein, the team's offensive line will be large as well as experienced.
The date circled for every Shiloh Christian fan is Sept. 6 (Labor Day), when the Saints travel to Cowboys Stadium to take on Trinity (Euless, Texas) as part of the 2010 Kirk Herbstreit Varsity Football Series in Arlington, Texas. A clear underdog in that match up, Shiloh Christian will look to shock hometown fans by upsetting the Trojans.
24. St. Joseph's Prep (Philadelphia), 9-3
Despite ending 2009 on a two-game losing streak, the 2010 season looks extremely bright for St. Joseph's Prep.
The Hawks were the only team to beat AAAA champion LaSalle College (Wyndmoor, Pa.) last year, and they showed great resiliency in other victories.
In the season opener, St. Joe's Prep scored two touchdowns in the final six minutes to stun McKeesport (Pa.) 27-26. The following week, the Hawks erased a 28-14 halftime deficit to defeat St. Peter's Prep (Jersey City, N.J.) 40-28.
In both games, quarterback Skyler Mornhinweg stepped up. Against McKeesport, Mornhinweg was 4-of-4 passing for 96 yards and two touchdowns in the final six minutes. Against St. Peter's Prep, he returned a Marauders fumble on the opening kickoff of the second half for a TD to spark the rally.
As a junior in 2010, he'll be one of the most exciting players in the state. However, he's not alone. He'll be handing off to nimble running back Desmon Peoples, another dynamic athlete with vast potential.
Adding a contrast to the backfield could be sophomore Jared Alwan. A starter at linebacker as a freshman, the 6-foot, 215-pound Alwan will be one of the team's key pieces on defense, but could see some hand-offs if new head coach Gabe Infante wants a larger back to ignite the offense with a new wrinkle.
The front seven should be solid, with defensive ends Dan Pellicciotti and Pat Kueny returning. The secondary will be without Spencer Reid, son of Eagles head coach Andy Reid, who transferred, so new faces will have to fill in. But the team's strong point will undoubtedly be its potent offense.
"With Mornhinweg and Peoples running a spread offense, scoring shouldn't be a problem," Philadelphia Daily News reporter and MaxPreps correspondent Joe Santoliquito said.
Infante will receive a baptism by fire, as the Hawks open with St. Peter's Prep, an opponent he's familiar with from his day coaching at Memorial and Bergen Catholic.
23. Bishop Gorman (Las Vegas, Nev.), 15-0, 4A state champs
After overwhelming opponents by a combined score of 798-135, Bishop Gorman second-year head coach Tony Sanchez thought it might be time to seek some new challenges.
"Sanchez has significantly upgraded the Gaels' schedule, including early-season games against Del Oro (Loomis, Calif.) and De La Salle (Concord, Calif.) that will serve as a measuring stick for where Gorman is at nationally," said MaxPreps Nevada correspondent David Schoen.
That seems fitting considering Gorman has already established itself as a national basketball and baseball power. Taking on Del Oro and De La Salle are no minor tasks, but Sanchez's crew will be well-equipped.
Back for the Gaels is junior running back Shaquille Powell, who totaled 1,555 yards and 29 TDs a year ago. Sophomore quarterback Jarrett Solomon had a magnificent freshman season, throwing for 2,108 yards and 20 TD passes.
Anchoring the line are 6-7 junior Ronnie Stanley and 6-1 junior Nick Strehlow. Ron Scoggins and Andre Patterson should also have big seasons.
On defense, USC-bound Jalen Grimble is the team's high-profile standout but the Gaels also return a pair of stout linebackers in Ronald Lyles, the team's second-leading tackler in 2009, and Jordan Welte. Powell doubles as a lockdown cornerback, and was an all-conference selection at the position a year ago. Washington-bound Evan Zeger, a 6-2 safety, is another impact player in the secondary.
While De La Salle will have one of its more talented teams in recent years and Del Oro should be strong, Bishop Gorman will be tested immediately, taking on defending Arizona 5A-I champion Hamilton in its opener.
22. Long Beach Poly (Calif.), 7-5
Long Beach Poly seems primed to dish back many of the lumps it took in 2009. Poly opened 2009 with a 30-7 loss to Servite (Anaheim, Calif.), followed by a 27-7 defeat at the hands of St. Bonaventure (Ventura, Calif.). In total, the Jackrabbits lost four of their first seven games.
Things came together for head coach Raul Lara and Poly shortly thereafter. The team downed Los Alamitos (Calif.) 24-7 thanks to a safety and two blocked punts to help set up a rematch with Servite, in which the Friars narrowly prevailed 21-18 before winning the CIF Division II Bowl Game title.
The Jackrabbits defense, which carried the team, returns a whopping 10 players with starting experience, and could rival some of the great Poly defenses of the past. Leading the way is linebacker Corey Waller, who was responsible for 58 tackles and eight sacks a year ago. Senior defensive lineman Michael Teo and junior linebacker Salamo Fiso, the team's leading tacklers, should have an even bigger impact in 2010.
Kameron Jackson, already committed to Washington, is back in the secondary. He's flanked by an abundance of talent, including senior Dabness Atkins. The roster also features a number of juniors and sophomores who could emerge.
Put simply, defensive coordinator Jeff Turley will have numerous pieces to play with, and will be dealing from a position of strength, and perhaps more importantly, experience. On offense is where Poly stumbled last year. Most of the team's leading skill players were seniors, so look for Poly to upgrade on offense.
"Skill players have never been an issue at Poly," MaxPreps correspondent Martin Henderson said.
Chaiyse Hales is unproven at quarterback, but he did get some varsity snaps. He has a number of options, including Randall Goforth and junior Josiah Blandin. Six-foot-5 sophomore Roschon Prince, a star basketball player, could also be in the mix.
Kameron White, a member of the school's 400-meter relay track team, will likely see the bulk of the carries. The go-to target for Poly could be Earnest Pettway a 6-4, 230-pound tight end. He'll line up alongside 6-5 lineman Fillippo Mose. Traditionally huge in the trenches, 2010 should be no different for Poly.
21. Armwood (Seffner, Fla.), 13-2, 4A semifinalists
If you're looking for a team potentially on the verge of something special this season, look no further than Armwood. The Hawks sustained only two losses last year, to 5A champion Plant (Tampa, Fla.) and 4A champion Dwyer (Palm Beach Gardens, Fla.).
Six starters return on both sides of the ball, including some of the most talented young players in the state.
Quarterback Josh Grady is back behind center for Sean Callahan's squad. The dual-threat 6-1, 175-pounder threw for 1,553 yards and 18 TDs. He tacked on eight touchdowns on the ground. He has offers from a number of colleges.
A.J. King is back at receiver and will mentor speedy sophomores Alvin Bailey and Ronnie Thomas. Stellar running back Matt Jones, only a junior, is poised for a huge season. The 6-3, 210-pounder is a man-child and already one of the premier backs in Central Florida.
Blocking for Jones will be Cody Waldrop, a 6-3, 310-pound junior who Callahan says is as nasty as any lineman he's coached this side of Matt Patchan. He was the only sophomore on Florida's 4A All-state team last year. Cameron Dees (6-3, 285), a junior, also brings plenty of brawn and strength to the Hawks.
Jermaine McKinney (119 tackles) is another returning all-state player. He, along with linebackers Eric Striker and Jacob Zilbar, the team's second- and third-leading tacklers, are the strength of an impressive defense, which also includes lineman David Tinsley and sophomore sensation Khiry McQuay.
It's a boom-or-bust type season for Armwood. In an extremely deep year for the Tampa area, which could have teams vying for state titles in four different divisions, the Hawks could end up being the best.
20. Colerain (Cincinnati, Ohio), 8-2
Fourteen starters, seven on each side of the ball, are back for Colerain, which ended the season on an eight-game winning streak.
Cardinals head coach Tom Bolden will once again be running a triple-option offense, and he'll have many key pieces to do it with.
"Although it’s very early, Colerain appears to be among the early area Southwest Ohio favorites going into this season based upon several talented returning players," said Mike Dyer, MaxPreps' Ohio correspondent and assistant high school sports editor of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
At running back, Trayion Durham has Big East and ACC scholarship offers. He rushed for 1,113 yards and 14 TDs as a junior. He's a bruising rusher who is complemented nicely by electric back Tyler Williams, who had 893 yards and eight rushing touchdowns.
The team has yet to name a quarterback, but speculation suggests Williams could line up behind center. Getting the ball in his hands more often and allowing him to distribute to Durham could make Colerain's offense even that more potent. Colerain's traditional calling card, however, is defense. With linebackers Jarrett Grace, Andrew Smith, and Joe Bolden back, it will be extremely difficult to run against Cardinals.
Grace, who is 6-4 and 240 pounds, is already committed to Notre Dame. Smith has offers from Stanford, Minnesota, and Cincinnati, while Bolden, only a junior, has an early offer from the Bearcats.
19. Hamilton (Chandler, Ariz.), 14-0, 5A-I state champs
After an undefeated run in 2009, expectations are through the roof for this year's Hamilton squad.
The Huskies finished 14-0 and beat Brophy College Prep (Phoenix, Ariz.) and rival Chandler (twice). In 2010, nearly the entire offensive line will return in what could be the best offensive line in the history of the state.
The obvious name that most fans, players, and college recruiters point to is 6-5 tackle Christian Westerman. A Texas commit, Westerman is thought to be one of the top players at his position nationally. CBS College/MaxPreps recruiting analyst Tom Lemming pegs him as the No. 22 recruit overall.
However, Westerman is far from the only star. Six-foot-6 Tyler Johnstone bookends the line opposite Westerman. Also a college prospect, Johnstone has a very high ceiling. John Archuleta, a transfer from Nevada, will be the X-factor for the unit. Only a junior, Archuleta will solidify the interior of the line.
Six-foot-3 quarterback Kyren Poe will be the primary beneficiary. In backup duty in 2009, he threw for 659 yards and seven TDs versus only one interception.
Taking handoffs from Poe will be Jai Johnson, a senior who has patiently waited for his opportunity to be the go-to guy for the Huskies. In 2009, he averaged nearly seven yards per carry. Each wave of the defense returns key players with Shaq Jenkins, Tyler Rutt, and Cedric Parker manning the defensive line, linebackers, and secondary, respectively.
Opening up with Bishop Gorman should give some indication of how good Hamilton can be in 2010. While the team's skill players are still somewhat unknown, there aren't many players who couldn't at least be serviceable behind the Huskies' offensive line. Hamilton should be the top team in Arizona as well as one of the best in the West.
18. Northwestern (Rock Hill, S.C.), 9-6, 4A-II runner up
Last year was a tale of two seasons for Northwestern.
The Trojans were 0-4 and later 1-5 before the team's collective light bulb went off. Northwestern rattled off eight straight victories, including wins over Clover (S.C.), Rock Hill (S.C.) and Gaffney (S.C.), before falling in the state final to Lancaster. What changed?
Well, in 2008, Justin Worley earned MaxPreps Sophomore of the Year honors after throwing 50 TD passes. In 2009, he began the year throwing to an entirely new group of receivers.
The game against Nation Ford (Fort Mill, S.C.) is when Worley and crew turned it around. He threw five touchdown passes as the Trojans won their second game in three weeks. From that point on, Worley continued to feed favorite target Robert Joseph, who set a state record with 150 catches.
His 1,834 receiving yards and 20 TDs last season were equally impressive. In all, four of Worley's top five targets are back, including Stewart Hunt and Cody Craven.
Returning players litter the offensive and defensive lines. Roderick Byers and Gerald Dixon, at defensive end and tackle, respectively, need to be accounted for each play. Both have been offered by South Carolina. Both are All-State candidates primed for outstanding senior campaigns.
Northwestern certainly trended in the the right direction in 2009, despite dropping its last game. With its prolific air attack fully intact and one of the state's top defensive lines, look for Northwestern to make a run at a state title in 2010. With respect to defending 4A-I champion Dorman (Roebuck, S.C.) and consistent Palmetto State and national power Byrnes (Duncan, S.C.), Northwestern appears to have the makings of South Carolina's top team this year.
17. Hoover (Ala.), 15-1, 6A state champs
One of America's most famous high school football team became champions again in 2009 as Hoover captured its sixth state title of the decade, beating Prattville (Ala.) 28-23 in the 6A state final.
With head coach Josh Niblett at the helm, the Buccaneers are in good position to attempt a repeat in 2010.
Returning behind center is quarterback Ryan Carter, who was an honorable mention All-State after throwing for roughly 3,100 yards and 32 TDs. He's extremely focused and determined, according to Niblett, characteristics that are almost mandatory for anyone assuming the role of quarterback at the school made famous on MTV.
Running back Justin McArthur and receiver Jaylon Denson are also back. Denson is a 6-2, 190-pound receiver poised for a superb senior campaign. He pulled in five catches for 160 yards in Hoover's spring game against Fairhope (Ala.), and Niblett expects big things for him as a senior.
Brandon Morgan, a 6-1 senior offensive lineman, was a 6A All-State selection last year. He's joined by promising newcomer Daniel Aust, a junior who has the makings of a big-time recruit.
At least six starters are back for a defense that posted four shutouts last year, including lineman Tyler Roberts, Michael Nysewander, and Max Elliott. Meanwhile, linebackers Braxton Lowe, Marcus Matthews, and Teryence Glaze are all back. None possesses great size, but all should be very productive high school players.
Roberts will likely play linebacker at the next level, but thrives with his hand on the ground. In the secondary, Brett Bowden and Preston Sanford will set the tone.
A major hurdle for Hoover to clear will be a South Carolina showdown with perennial power Byrnes (Duncan, S.C.). Right after that match up, Hoover comes home to face rival Spain Park (Hoover, Ala.).
There may not be as much pure firepower on this year's Bucs team, but Hoover should be more physical and more experienced. Expectations are always high in Hoover, so in that regard, 2010 will be no different than any other season.
16. Warren Central (Indianapolis, Ind.), 13-2, 5A state champs
In just his second year as head coach at Warren Central, John Hart returned the Warriors to the promised land, capturing Indiana's 5A title with an improbable 42-36 double-overtime victory over Carmel (Ind.). It represented the Warriors' fifth state championship.
Warren Central has regained its footing as the dominant team in Indiana, a perch it enjoyed throughout the 2000s when it was routinely was a nationally-recognized team. The 2010 Warriors may not be explosive offensively, at least initially, but their defense will absolutely blanket opponents.
Shakir Bell is the team's biggest loss. He gained 3,105 yards and scored 38 touchdowns. Robert Hollins has waited his turn, and should thrive behind a bruising offensive line led by 6-5 Kiaro Holts, who has received offers from USC and Florida, among many. Also, 6-1, 275-pound Michael Tolliver is another vital asset back in the trenches. The unit will also open holes for running back Anthony Davis.
Both Holts and Tolliver are great in Hart's wide-open spread attack, which the team has fully transitioned to. Quarterback Clarence Hayes (5-11) may not look the part like 2009 QB Derek Hart, who towered over the line at 6-4. However, Hayes is very athletic and should bring an added dimension to the position.
Virginia Tech commit Kris Harley stars on defense and may be the biggest difference-maker in the state. He made 91 tackles and five sacks as a junior. Sheldon Day and Joshua Posley, both juniors, will assist Harley, and both look like Division I players.
Nick Temple, the teams leading tackler, returns at linebacker after racking up 135 tackles last year. He's joined by junior Jordan Wallace, who's already being heavily recruited.
Louisville commit Eric Robinson-Berry brings physicality to the secondary with his terrific size (6-1, 190). He missed much of last season with a separated shoulder, and is just another reason the Warriors defense will be even more imposing this season.
A rematch with Carmel in Week 7 will be especially significant for the Warriors, as former Warren Central head coach Kevin Wright is now at the helm of the Greyhounds.
15. Manatee (Bradenton, Fla.), 13-2, 5A runner up
It was the night of Dec. 11 when Manatee sent shock waves through the state of Florida that had national reverberations.
On that evening, Manatee's defense overwhelmed defending state and national champion St. Thomas Aquinas (Fort Lauderdale, Fla.), which was ranked No. 1 in the MaxPreps Xcellent 25 at the time, paving the way for eventual national champ Don Bosco Prep (Ramsey, N.J.).
One week later, Manatee lost to Plant, 21-14, in the 5A state final, but did not fall short of re-establishing itself on as a football power. The Hurricanes have a foundation in place that could position them to be better in 2010.
Quarterback Brion Carnes graduated after throwing for 2,245 yards and 25 scores. Sophomore Cord Sandberg likely won't miss a beat replacing him. He tossed five TD passes in Manatee's spring game. Manatee's biggest playmaker a year ago, Mike Blakely, is also back. He accounted for 1,401 rushing yards and 16 TDs. Proving to be a capable threat as a receiver, he also reeled in 35 catches for 432 yards and four scores.
Though star wide out Ace Sanders is gone, Manatee still has receiver Quenton Bundrage. Bundrage actually hauled in 10 TDs to Sanders' nine. The team's top offensive lineman, Nick Galati, will be back, but it's Manatee's defensive line that is its strength.
All four starters in the 4-2-5 scheme return, highlighted by Quinton Pompey, who recorded 12 sacks in 2009. His brother, Chris Pompey, is a defensive end that registered eight sacks.
Junior linebacker Darius White led the team in tackles last year with 137. Junior defensive back Clinton Heaven made 10 tackles against Plant in the state final, a team high. The Hurricanes' secondary was critical in its victory over Aquinas, so Heaven will need some teammates to step up.
Woodland Hills (Pittsburgh, Pa.), which could be one of the top teams in Pennsylvania, will be an interesting match up for Manatee. The 5A playoff bracket will once again be brutal in Florida, so any regular-season tests should help the team prepare for the post season gauntlet.
Sandburg's maturation, as well as that of the secondary, will be the hinge on which Manatee's season rests.
14. Good Counsel (Olney, Md.), 11-1, WCAC Champs
In 2009, Good Counsel finally topped DeMatha (Hyattsville, Md.) for the WCAC title. In 2010, the Falcons will open the season as favorites to repeat as champions.
Good Counsel will feature great size, tremendous speed, and a host of key starters back.
Speedy Wes Brown will be the feature back again after starting a sophomore. He was receiving offers as a freshman, so he's physically advanced well beyond his age. However, buzz around campus is that sophomore Dorian O'Daniel could have a higher upside, given his 6-1 frame. He's already got similar speed.
Zach Dancel returns behind center to guide the Falcons offense. He'll throw to a young but talented wide receiver corps. Stefon Diggs, who has played since his ninth-grade year, will bring back valuable experience along with big-play abilities.
The offensive and defensive lines will be major strengths as Ryan Watson (6-3, 250) and Michael Madaras (6-6, 250) offer great size on the offensive unit. Vincent Croce, and Joe Rosenblatt are extremely disruptive on the defensive side of things.
Head coach Bob Milloy will have some work to do to fill in spots in the secondary, but apart from that, there's very little that stands in the way of an outstanding season for Good Counsel, other than DeMatha, which also returns prodigious talent.
Another major test will be Cincinnati power St. Xavier (Cincinnati, Ohio). The Falcons have beaten out-of-state opponents from New Jersey and California the past two seasons, but traveling to Ohio and earning a victory over a Buckeye State title contender would really be a statement of national proportions.
13. Servite (Anaheim, Calif.), 14-1 , CIF Division II Bowl Game champs
In 2009, Servite proved itself to be one of the top teams in the country. Finishing 14-1, the Friars claimed victories over Edison (Huntington Beach, Calif.), Mission Viejo (Calif.), and Rocklin (Calif.); each of those teams finished the season with just that lone loss.
Servite also beat nemesis Mater Dei (Santa Ana, Calif.) for the first time in over 20 years.
Usually you can pencil in the best team in the Pac-5 each season as one of the nation's best. That holds true in 2010, as Servite has a great chance to repeat as Pac-5 champs and once again earn a high national ranking.
According to Henderson, this year's version of the Friars could be the deepest in head coach Troy Thomas' tenure. For a team that churns out college prospects and is coming off a Bowl Game victory, that truly speaks to the ability of this team.
Juniors Cody Pittman and Butch Pauu will battle it out to replace departed quarterback Cody Fajardo, now at Nevada.
Whoever emerges at the spot will have to learn quickly, but he'll have a lot of help. Sean DeRosa will be a weapon at running back. He had a nice sophomore season and will assume a bigger role in the offense. Meanwhile, 6-1 senior Robert Abeyta is a proven commodity at wide receiver. Wyatt Baker is back on the offensive line.
Tight end Troy Niklas is one of the best players in the Trinity League. In addition to his efforts on offense, he also lines up on the defensive line, which also features returning Trinity League Defensive Player of the Year Matthew Inman. Inman will team with Pauu in what should be another dominant unit.
The secondary boasts Jordan Jones and Karlton Dennis, who will come in handy when the Friars take on Mater Dei, which figures to have a bounce back season thanks to returning quarterback Max Wittek and receiver Victor Blackwell.
Despite the talent that returns on defense, Servite's success will likely ride on the effectiveness of its quarterback play. The Friars are very strong everywhere else on the field, and just need Pittman or Pauu to develop into a viable threat.
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